# What is the S matrix for 4 port circulator?

## What is the S matrix for 4 port circulator?

3 Port Circulator S-Matrix | 4 Port Circulator S-Matrix The 4 port circulator can be made using two magic-T and a non reciprocal 180 degree phase shifter. It can also be made using a combination of two 3-dB side hole directional couplers with two non reciprocal phase shifters.

### How will you use the four port circulator as duplexer explain?

The duplexer is used to merge two signals into one channel. The circulator is used as a duplexer in radars to route the signals from the transmitter to the antenna and from the antenna to the receiver avoiding signals to directly pass from transmitter to receiver.

How many ports a circulator can have?

three ports
A circulator is a device that transports radio frequency or microwave signals from one port to another. They typically have three ports. They are made of magnets and ferrite materials with magnetic properties. Circulators can be made to circulate clockwise or counterclockwise.

How many number of ones are there in S matrix of circulator?

As the circulator allows power flow in only one direction, only one of the elements in each row has a 1 in the matrix. With three rows, there are three ones. 3.

## What are the properties of S matrix?

Properties of [S] Matrix

• [S] is always a square matrix of order nxn. [S]n×n.
• [S] is a symmetric matrix. i.e., Sij=Sji.
• [S] is a unitary matrix. i.e., [S][S]∗=I.
• The sum of the products of each term of any row or column multiplied by the complex conjugate of the corresponding terms of any other row or column is zero. i.e.,

### What is circulator in radar?

In radar, circulators are used as a type of duplexer, to route signals from the transmitter to the antenna and from the antenna to the receiver, without allowing signals to pass directly from transmitter to receiver.

What is the main use of circulator?

What is the principle involved in circulators?

Circulators are made of an assembly of optical components. There are many different designs but the key principle is like that of the isolator. Light travelling in one direction through a Faraday rotator has its polarisation rotated in one particular direction.

## Where circulators are extensively used?

### Which is used in circulators?

Ferrite. Ferrite circulators are radio-frequency circulators which employ magnetized microwave ferrite materials. Typically permanent magnets produce a static magnetic bias in the microwave ferrite material. Ferrimagnetic garnet crystal is used in optical circulators.

Why do we prefer S-matrix?

S matrix is used in MW analysis to overcome the problems which occurs when H,Y,&Z parameters are used in high frequencies. Equipment is not readily available to measure total voltage &total current at the ports of the network. Short and open circuits are difficult to achieve over a broad band of frequencies.

Can a 4 port circulator be made with magic-T?

The figure-2 depicts S matrix of perfectly matched, lossless, non-reciprocal 3 port circulator. The 4 port circulator can be made using two magic-T and a non reciprocal 180 degree phase shifter. It can also be made using a combination of two 3-dB side hole directional couplers with two non reciprocal phase shifters.

## Which is waveguide forms the 3 port circulator?

The 3 port circulator is formed by a 120 degree H-plane waveguide or by using strip line symmetrical Y junction with a central ferrite disc. 3-port circulator S-matrix can be expressed as follows. The figure-2 depicts S matrix of perfectly matched, lossless, non-reciprocal 3 port circulator.

### How is a 3 port circulator formed in a microwave?

In simple terms, A 3 port circulator is formed by 120 degree H – Plane waveguide or by using stripline symmetrical Y junction. A 3 port circulator is an asymmetrical Y-type junction of three identical waveguides with an axially magnetized ferrite post placed at the center.

Can a 4 port circulator be used in a negative resistance amplifier?

It is an essential component used to isolate the input and output in a negative resistance amplifier. Three port circulators are also used to couple a transmitter to various receivers. The 4 port circulator can be made using 2 magic T and one non-reciporcal 180 degrees phase shifter.

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