What is the pharmacology of anesthetic drugs?
INTRODUCTION. General anesthesia is a state characterized by unconsciousness, analgesia, amnesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, and loss of reflexes. Drugs used as general anesthetics are CNS depressants with actions that can be induced and terminated more rapidly than those of conventional sedative-hypnotics.
What are local anesthetics pharmacology?
Local anaesthetic agents suppress action potentials in excitable tissues by blocking voltage-gated Na+ channels. In doing so, they inhibit action potentials in nociceptive fibres and so block the transmission of pain impulses.
What is the pharmacology of propofol?
The action of propofol involves a positive modulation of the inhibitory function of the neurotransmitter gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) through GABA-A receptors. Rapid – time to onset of unconsciousness is 15-30 seconds, due to rapid distribution from plasma to the CNS.
Which anesthetic is used intravenously?
Propofol, etomidate, and ketamine are the intravenous (IV) sedative-hypnotic agents commonly used to induce general anesthesia (table 1).
What are the stages of anaesthesia?
There are four stages of general anesthesia, namely: analgesia – stage 1, delirium – stage 2, surgical anesthesia – stage 3 and respiratory arrest – stage 4. As the patient is increasingly affected by the anesthetic his anesthesia is said to become ‘deeper’.
What are the Applied Pharmacology of local anaesthetic agents?
What is the pH of propofol?
DIPRIVAN is isotonic and has a pH of 7 to 8.5.
What are the different types of general anesthetic agents?
General anesthetic agents can be classified into: barbiturate anesthetics, nonbarbiturate general anesthetics, anesthetic gases, and volatile liquids.
Which is the best definition of anesthetic pharmacology?
Anesthetics – Pharmacology. 1. General anesthesia: a reversible state of central nervous system depression resulting in loss of response to and perception of external stimuli For patients undergoing surgical and other medical procedures anesthesia provides these benefits: Sedation and reduction of anxiety Lack…
Is there any significant analgesia from inhaled anesthetics?
Molecular structure of common inhaled general anesthetics. Surrogate measures of pain suggest that, with the exception of nitrous oxide, inhaled anesthetics do not provide any significant analgesia.
What are the effects of General and local anesthetics?
General and Local Anesthetics. Anesthetics are drugs used to cause complete or partial loss of sensation. These drugs are subdivided based on site of action and can either be general or local. General anesthetics can cause central nervous system (CNS) depression to produce loss of pain sensation and consciousness.