What does plasticizer mean?
A plasticizer is defined as an additive that is incorporated into a plastic to impart softness and flexibility in order to facilitate the manufacturing process. From: Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics, 2012.
What are the two types of plasticizers?
Plasticizers are added to plastics to make them flexible, pliable, and processable. There are two types of plasticizers: (1) the primary plasticizer and (2) the secondary plasticizer or extender. The primary plasticizer improves the elongation and softness of the plastic.
What are plasticizers with examples?
The most common plasticizer chemical structures, polar or nonpolar, are, for example: phthalates, phosphates, carboxylic acid esters, epoxidized fatty acid esters, polymeric polyesters, modified polymers; liquid rubbers, and plastics, Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), chlorinated PE, EVA, etc.; paraffinic, aromatic, or …
What is the use of dibutyl maleate?
DBM is a colorless liquid with a characteristic “ester” odor. It is used as a comonomer in vinyl and acrylic emulsion polymerization for paints and adhesives. DBM is also a suitable intermediate for use in organic synthesis, e.g. in the production of derivatives of succinic acid.
Are plasticizers harmful?
Phthalate plasticizers are the most abundant man-made pollutants that have recently received wide-spread attention. There is uncertainty concerning the toxicity to humans. Toxic reactions are also reported involving inflammation, mitochondria and carcinogenicity.
How do plasticizers work?
Plasticizers do their job by acting as a kind of “lubricant” between segments of polymer chains. Without the plasticizer, those chains of molecules would sit on top of each other as rigidly as uncooked spaghetti in a box. Many different materials use plasticizers — PVC, rubber, plastics and so on.
Where are plasticizers used?
For example, plasticizers are commonly added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which otherwise is hard and brittle, to make it soft and pliable; which makes it suitable for products such as vinyl flooring, clothing, bags, hoses, and electric wire coatings.
Is maleic anhydride an acid?
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa). Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O. It is the acid anhydride of maleic acid. It is a colorless or white solid with an acrid odor.
Are plasticizers in food?
When food contact materials such as PVC come into contact with food, the plasticisers may migrate into foodstuff. In general, higher levels of phthalate plasticisers will be migrated into fatty foods than non-fatty foods. Migration also increases with contact time and temperature.
What are plasticizers in food?
Food Grade Plasticizers are additives used for increasing the plasticity or decreasing the viscosity of the food wrapping material. Food grade plasticizers alters physical properties of wrapping material and augments flexibility in wrapping material by decreasing attraction between polymer chains.
What is the importance of plasticizers?
Plasticizers soften the PVC to make it flexible and bendable. This opens up a huge range of possibilities for new applications. One of the main benefits of plasticizers is the durability they confer onto PVC applications, which can ensure high performances for up to 50 years.
Why are plasticizers used in plastics and rubber?
Plasticizers are commonly added to polymers such as plastics and rubber, either to facilitate the handling of the raw material during fabrication, or to meet the demands of the end product’s application.
What is the difference between an antiplasticizer and a plasticizer?
Antiplasticizers are polymer additives that have effect opposite to those of plasticizers. They increase the modulus while decreasing the glass transition temperature. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is a common plasticizer.
Which is the most commonly used phthalate plasticizer?
Phthalate Esters – They are produced by esterification of phthalic anhydride or phthalic acid obtained by the oxidation of orthoxylene or naphthalene. Most commonly used phthalate plasticizers include: DEHP: Low molecular weight ortho-phthalate. Still the world’s most widely used PVC plasticizer DINP, DIDP: High molecular weight ortho-phthalates
Why are plasticizers added to hard and brittle polymers?
Plasticizers are added to hard and brittle polymers such as poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC), resulting in lower melt viscosity, lower glass transition temperature (T g ), lower elastic modulus, and better elongation of the blend, or any combination of these properties .