What is the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway?
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. Components of the MAPK/ERK pathway were discovered when they were found in cancer cells.
What does ERK pathway mean?
The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is one of the major signaling cassettes of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.
How effective is ipilimumab and Nivolumab?
The OS rate at 3 years was 58% in the nivolumab-plus-ipilimumab group and 52% in the nivolumab group, as compared with 34% in the ipilimumab group. Intracranial responses were achieved by 20% of patients in cohort 1 and 46% of patients in cohort 2.
Where does the signal start in the MAPK / ERK pathway?
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. The signal starts when a signaling molecule binds to the receptor on the cell surface and ends when…
Where does ERK1 / 2 translocate after activation?
Upon activation, ERK1/2 translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This process has been shown to be required for the induction of many cellular responses, although the molecular mechanisms regulating ERK nuclear function, especially under oncogenic stimulation, remain to be explored.
How are mutations in KRAS and BRAF related?
Gain-of-function mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes are found in up to 50% of colorectal cancers. These mutations result in the activation of the BRAF/MEK signaling pathway culminating in the stimulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Upon activation, ERK1/2 translocate from the cytoplas …
How are mitogens transmitted downstream of the ERK pathway?
Growth and mitogen signals are transmitted downstream of the ERK pathway are incorporated into multiple positive feedback loops to generate a bistable switch at the level of E2F activation. This occurs due to three main interactions during late G1 phase.