What is glucuronide conjugate?

What is glucuronide conjugate?

Glucuronide conjugate process is perhaps the major and most common route for Phase II metabolism to form water-soluble metabolites. Glucuronide conjugation involves the direct interaction of the drugs and xenobiotics (or its Phase I metabolite) with the cofactor UDP–glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as shown in Fig. 8.2.

Where does glucuronide conjugation take place?

Sites. Glucuronidation occurs mainly in the liver, although the enzyme responsible for its catalysis, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, has been found in all major body organs (e.g., intestine, kidneys, brain, adrenal gland, spleen, and thymus).

What does glucuronic acid conjugate?

The glucuronic acid conjugates, or “glucuronide conjugates” as they are commonly called, are compounds formed by enzyme-catalysed glucuronidation of drug metabolites that contain either a hydroxyl group (ROH – alcohols; PhOH – phenols) or a carboxyl group (RCO2H – acids).

What is a conjugate metabolite?

Conjugates are the end products of the metabolism of many natural and foreign chemicals, and it seems logical in view of the methods then used that they should have been found before the oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis products of foreign compounds that are usually intermediates in the formation of conjugates.

What enzyme do cats lack?

Cats lack the major phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, including UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, that glucuronidate acetaminophen and propofol.

What is the function of glucuronic acid?

A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.

What are conjugating agents?

What are Radiologic conjugating agents? Radiological conjugating agents (RCA) are drugs or diagnostic agents that contain a radioactive substance and a conjugating agent. When administered the conjugating agent and the attached radioactive substance specifically bind and accumulate in the target cells.

Do cats need digestive enzymes?

Recovery of Lack of Digestive Enzymes in Cats For the majority of cats with a lack of digestive enzymes, treatment is required daily or with each meal your cat takes. With the restoration of digestive enzymes, your cat will be able to absorb food, gain weight and restore her general state of health.

Why do cats need arginine?

Cats need more protein than other species like humans or dogs. Arginine is important because it is involved in removing ammonia (the waste product of protein breakdown) from the body. If cats cannot remove the ammonia from their bodies, they can suffer weight loss, vomiting, neurological signs, and even death.

How does glucuronide conjugation occur in classic cannabinoids?

One research article showed glucuronide conjugation occurs for all classic cannabinoids tested and that classic cannabinoid metabolism seems to be tissue-specific. This enzyme can undo the handy-work of glucuronidation. Beta-glucuronidase will break the glucuronide bond and release the toxins.

What is the chemical strategy of glucuronidation?

O Chemical strategy of glucuronidation is to create a good electrophile, by providing a good leaving group, on a hydrophilic co- factor. Nucleophilic drugs react.! pKa ~3!

What are the biological effects of acyl glucuronidation?

Acyl glucuronidation is the major metabolic conjugation reaction of most carboxylic acid drugs in mammals. The physiological consequences of this biotransformation have been investigated incompletely but include effects on drug metabolism, protein binding, distribution and clearance that impact upon pharmacological and toxicological outcomes.

Which is an example of a glucuronide acceptor?

Many ʻendogenousʼ glucuronide acceptors: e.g. Crigler-Najjar disease, Gilbertʼs disease result from insufficient conjugation of bilirubin (UGTA1); impairs biliary excretion, hyperbilirubinemia.” II. Reactions/glucuronidation!

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