What is urogenital tuberculosis?

What is urogenital tuberculosis?

Urogenital tuberculosis (TB) is the third most common form of extrapulmonary TB (after lymph node involvement and tuberculous pleural effusion) [1]. Urogenital TB occurs in 2 to 20 percent of individuals with pulmonary TB [1-3].

How is urogenital tuberculosis diagnosed?

The nonspecific clinical features of UGTB make the early and accurate diagnosis of this disease difficult. Hematuria, lower urinary tract symptoms, flank pain and scrotal swelling are the most common presenting features.

What causes urinary tract tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis of the kidney and urinary tract is, like other forms of the disease, caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. By far the most common causative organism is the human tubercle bacillus, M. tuberculosis, but the bovine tubercle bacillus, M. bovis, occasionally can be responsible.

Is urinary TB curable?

Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) should in general be treated as pulmonary TB with a four-drug regimen of Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide for a total of 6 months, Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide only the first two months.

Can TB be detected in urine?

Urine is easily obtainable and can be tested using either a lateral flow assay (LFA) for TB-lipoarabinomannan (TB-LAM) or the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Tuberculosis-LAM is emerging as the key urine-based TB diagnostic.

Can TB damage kidneys?

The clinical manifestations of renal TB are commonly unilateral and involve approximately 3% of all patients with TB, and bilateral kidney involvement is uncommon and can lead to chronic kidney disease.

Does TB show in urine culture?

[25] Urine analysis of sediment from a 24-hour specimen for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is positive in 80-90% of cases of TB. Urine culture requires 6-8 weeks for diagnosis and there is a 10-20% false-negative rate.

Can TB spread through urine?

GUTB is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with more than 90% of cases occurring in developing countries. In GUTB, the kidneys are the most common sites of infection and are infected through hematogenous spread of the bacilli, which then spread through the renal and urinary tract.

Does TB affect kidneys?

Renal tuberculosis may affect either one or both kidneys. The inner part of the kidney called the medulla is usually affected, though the infection usually starts from the cortex which is the outer part. Renal tuberculosis is sometimes a part of the tuberculosis that affects the entire genitourinary tract.

Can TB cause UTI?

UTI, urogenital tract infection; UTGB, urogenital tuberculosis. All patients had more than one symptom….Table 1.

UTI (n/%) n = 181 181/100
UGTB (n/%) n = 63 63/100
Total (n/%) n = 244 244/100

What is the first stage of tuberculosis?

Early symptoms of TB include unusual fatigue, fever , loss of weight, headache , coughing, and irritability. An infected child may have night sweats and cough up blood. In advanced stages, the patient will suffer persistent coughing, breathlessness, and fever.

What are the symptoms of urogenital tuberculosis ( TB )?

In patients with genitourinary tuberculosis, local symptoms predominate and systemic symptoms are less common. 405,406 Dysuria, hematuria, and frequent urination are common, and flank pain may also be noted.

What are the symptoms of genital TB in men?

Genital TB in men generally presents with a scrotal mass due to infection of the epididymis and less frequently with prostatitis, orchitis or scrotal fistulas. In women with genital TB the most common presentation is infertility, followed by pelvic pain or dysmenorrhea.

Who is most at risk for urogenital tuberculosis?

Urogenital involvement is present in 2% to 20% of patients with pulmonary TB (2% to 10% in developed countries, and 15% to 20% in developing countries). 428,431,435-437 It is principally a disease of young to middle-aged patients, 75% of whom are younger than 50 years. Men are affected more than women (2:1).

Can a person with pulmonary TB have genitourinary TB?

Many patients with pulmonary TB may have coexistent asymptomatic genitourinary TB. The symptoms of genitourinary TB are often localized to the organs involved and constitutional symptoms are uncommon.

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