What causes Benedikt syndrome?
Benedikt syndrome is caused by a lesion (infarction, hemorrhage, tumor, or tuberculosis) in the tegmentum of the midbrain and cerebellum. Specifically, the median zone is impaired. It can result from occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery or paramedian penetrating branches of the basilar artery.
What is basilar artery syndrome?
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is a condition characterized by poor blood flow to the posterior (back) portion of the brain, which is fed by two vertebral arteries that join to become the basilar artery. Blockage of these arteries occurs over time through a process called atherosclerosis, or the build-up of plaque.
What is fourth nerve palsy?
Fourth nerve palsy means that a certain muscle in your eye is paralyzed. It is caused by disease or injury to the fourth cranial nerve. In children, it is most often present at birth (congenital). In adults, it is most often caused by injury. Many cases of fourth nerve palsy are idiopathic.
What is Sturge syndrome?
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare vascular disorder characterized by the association of a facial birthmark called a port-wine birthmark, abnormal blood vessels in the brain, and eye abnormalities such as glaucoma.
What are the signs and symptoms of Benedikt syndrome?
Signs and symptoms It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and involuntary choreoathetotic movements. Neuroanatomical structures affected include the oculomotor nucleus, red nucleus, corticospinal tracts and superior cerebellar peduncle decussation.
What kind of nerve palsy does Benedikt syndrome cause?
Benedikt syndrome is an eponymously named neurological condition secondary to specific damage in the midbrain that causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, contralateral hemiparesis, and contralateral cerebellar ataxia and/or Holmes tremor and/or choreoathetosis.
How is Benedikt syndrome related to paramedian midbrain syndrome?
Benedikt syndrome has also been referred to as paramedian midbrain syndrome, so understanding the function of those above medially located tegmentum structures can help elucidate the syndrome’s symptom cluster: Edinger-Westphal nucleus: the origin of the parasympathetic supply to iris sphincter and ciliary muscle travels with the oculomotor nerve.
What kind of brain stimulation is used for Benedikt syndrome?
Cerebellar ataxia: involuntary movements. Deep brain stimulation may provide relief from some symptoms of Benedikt syndrome, particularly the tremors associated with the disorder. ^ Akdal G, Kutluk K, Men S, Yaka E (Jan 2005).