# Is the exponential map surjective?

## Is the exponential map surjective?

Surjectivity of the exponential In these important special cases, the exponential map is known to always be surjective: G is connected and compact, G is connected and nilpotent (for example, G connected and abelian), and.

## Is the exponential map Injective?

This is not enough since in the simply connected Lie group associated to e, the exponential map is not injective (this can been seen concretely, as in can be realized as the group of motions of the 3-dimensional Euclidean space generated by horizontal translations and a given 1-parameter group of vertical screwings).

How do you find an exponential map?

The exponential map is defined to be exp : E → M, (p, Xp) ↦→ expp(Xp) := γ(1;p, Xp). By definition the point expp(Xp) is the end point of the geodesic segment that starts at p in the direction of Xp whose length equals |Xp|. expe(Xp) = eiXp . expe(A) = I + A + A2 2!

### What is an exponential map?

In Riemannian geometry, an exponential map is a map from a subset of a tangent space TpM of a Riemannian manifold (or pseudo-Riemannian manifold) M to M itself.

### What is the rule for an exponential function?

An exponential function is defined by the formula f(x) = ax, where the input variable x occurs as an exponent. The exponential curve depends on the exponential function and it depends on the value of the x. The exponential function is an important mathematical function which is of the form. f(x) = ax.

Is the exponential map conformal?

Exponential function: Conformal map graphics. Images of concentric circles of radii between and around the origin under the (conformal) map . The curves of small radii concentrate around the point .

#### Why is it called the exponential map?

I’ve read in several books, including Milnor’s Morse Theory and Petersen’s Riemannian Geometry, that the exponential map in Riemannian geometry is named so because it agrees with the exponential map in Lie theory, at least for a certain choice of metric on the Lie group.

#### What is exponential function formula?

How do you determine if a function is an exponential function?

In an exponential function, the independent variable, or x-value, is the exponent, while the base is a constant. For example, y = 2x would be an exponential function.

## What is a left invariant vector field?

A vector field X ∈ X(G) is called left-invariant if for any g ∈ G DLgX = X ◦ Lg, i.e. DLg(h)X(h) = X(gh). Remark 6.5. (a) Left-invariant vector fields on G form a vector space over R. The space of left-invariant vector fields on G is called the Lie algebra of G and denoted by g.

## Is the exponential map smooth?

exp is a smooth map. 6. For each p ∈ M there exists ϵ > 0 such that expp : {X ∈ TpM | |X| < ϵ} → M is a diffeomorphism onto its image.

What do A and B stand for in exponential functions?

growth factor
an exponential function in general form. In this form, a represents an initial value or amount, and b, the constant multiplier, is a growth factor or factor of decay.

### Is the exponential map between Lie algebra and Lie group surjective?

Little is known on general conditions guaranteeing that the exponential map between a Lie algebra and an associated Lie group is surjective. Let M be a noncompact connected Riemann manifold, and G be its (Lie) group of isometries.

### Is the exponential map of a group always surjective?

In these important special cases, the exponential map is known to always be surjective: . For groups not satisfying any of the above conditions, the exponential map may or may not be surjective. The image of the exponential map of the connected but non-compact group SL2 ( R) is not the whole group.

Is the exponential map of SL2 ( are ) a whole group?

The image of the exponential map of the connected but non-compact group SL2 ( R) is not the whole group. Its image consists of C -diagonalizable matrices with eigenvalues either positive or with modulus 1, and of non-diagonalizable matrices with a repeated eigenvalue 1, and the matrix .

#### When is an exponential function a special case?

The ordinary exponential function of mathematical analysis is a special case of the exponential map when G {displaystyle G} is the multiplicative group of positive real numbers (whose Lie algebra is the additive group of all real numbers).

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