What is intra-abdominal infections?

What is intra-abdominal infections?

Intra-abdominal infection (IAI) describes a diverse set of diseases. It is broadly defined as peritoneal inflammation in response to microorganisms, resulting in purulence in the peritoneal cavity[1]. IAI are classified as uncomplicated or complicated based on the extent of infection[2].

What is the most common form of intra-abdominal infection?

The most common source of infection in community acquired intra-abdominal infections is the appendix, followed by the colon, and then the stomach. Dehiscences complicate 5-10% of intra-abdominal bowel anastomoses, and are associated with a mortality increase [3].

What causes intra-abdominal infection?

Intra-abdominal abscesses sometimes happen because of another condition such as appendicitis or diverticulitis. Many cases, however, happen after surgery. Abdominal abscesses can be caused by a bacterial infection. The most common bacteria to cause them are found in the stomach and intestines.

What bacteria causes intra-abdominal infection?

Nearly all intra-abdominal infections are caused by multiple microorganisms that constitute the intestinal flora (aerobes and facultative and obligate anaerobes, with Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Bacteroides fragilis isolated most frequently).

What is intra-abdominal mass?

An abdominal mass is an abnormal growth in the abdomen. An abdominal mass causes visible swelling and may change the shape of the abdomen. A person with an abdominal mass may notice weight gain and symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, pain, and bloating.

Where is the abdominal area?

The abdomen (colloquially called the belly, tummy, midriff or stomach) is the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the front part of the abdominal segment of the torso. The area occupied by the abdomen is called the abdominal cavity.

What is the difference between the visceral and parietal peritoneum?

Parietal peritoneum is that portion that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Those cavities are also known as the peritoneal cavity. Visceral peritoneum covers the external surfaces of most abdominal organs, including the intestinal tract.

What are prognostic risk factors for intra abdominal infections?

Prognostic risk factors in intra-abdominal infections Factors significantly associated with hospital mortality were: KPS score < 70, chronic kidney disease, the total score of CCI, localization of infection, polymicrobial flora and sensitivity to non-pseudomonal cephalosporin or ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole (Table 4).

Which is the best first line antibiotic for community acquired abdominal infection?

The carbapenem ertapenem is one of several first-line agents recommended by the Infectious Disease Society of America for the empiric treatment of community-acquired intra-abdominal infections of mild-to-moderate severity. Agents with anti-pseudomonal activity, including doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem are not recommended in this population.

Are there any full classifications of IAIS infections?

A full classification, including all facets of IAIs, does not exist. Two classifications are used to subdivide IAIs: uncomplicated or complicated, considering infection extent; and community-acquired, healthcare-associated or hospital-acquired, regarding the place of acquisition.

How to treat mixed aerobic and anaerobic abdominal infections?

Treatment of mixed aerobic and anaerobic abdominal infections requires the utilization of antimicrobials effective against both components of the infection as well as surgical correction and drainage of pus.

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