Is endodermal sinus tumor malignant?
Endodermal sinus tumors are the most common malignant germ cell tumor in children. Also called yolk sac tumor.
What is endodermal sinus?
What is endodermal sinus tumor? Germ cells are the cells in the ovaries and testicles that develop into eggs (ova) in females and sperm in males. An endodermal sinus tumor, also called a yolk sac tumor, is a type of germ cell cancer. Endodermal sinus tumors occur most often in children.
Is endodermal sinus tumor a germ cell tumor?
Endodermal sinus tumors are the second most common form of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary, accounting for 22% of malignant germ cell lesions in one large series.
What is the tumor marker for endodermal sinus tumor?
The diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor is made based on the imaging (U/S and MRI) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) tumor marker greater than 100 ng/ml. Endodermal sinus tumor have a bimodal distribution more commonly observed among young and adult population.
Is yolk sac curable?
Stage IV yolk sac tumours of extragonadal origin are rarely reported in the literature. Hence, diagnosis and treatment often pose a challenge for emergency care unit doctors, gynaecologists, and oncologists. However, it can be a potentially curable disease. Moreover, patients’ fertility can also be preserved.
What lesion is also known as endodermal sinus tumor?
Yolk Sac Tumor. Previously referred to as endodermal sinus tumors, yolk sac tumors are exceptional in pure form but more commonly admixed with germinomas and immature teratomas. Yolk sac tumors are commonly recognized by one or more of the many different morphologic patterns they may acquire.
Are seminomas benign or malignant?
A seminoma is a germ cell tumor of the testicle or, more rarely, the mediastinum or other extra-gonadal locations. It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered in early stages.
How is yolk sac tumor diagnosed?
Serum α-feto protein (AFP) is a useful bio-marker of yolk sac tumor diagnosis. It is present in almost 100% of the cases, and can be easily analyed from a venous blood sample. You might also be referred to an ultrasound expert or undergo an MRI, since these modalities can be used to detect the tumor.
Is yolk sac tumor a germ cell tumor?
Yolk sac tumor (YST), which most frequently arises in the gonads as a type of germ cell tumor, is rare in children but is highly malignant.
Is there a yolk sac tumor in the vagina?
Endodermal sinus tumor (or Yolk Sac tumor) of the vagina is a rare malignant germcell tumor which is seen exclusively in children younger than 3 years of age. We report two cases of endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina. In both cases no radiological investigation was done and serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated.
What kind of tumor is an endodermal sinus tumor?
Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina is a rare, highly malignant GCT that exclusively involves children less than 3 years of age. Various histopathological subtypes of EST include reticular (microcystic), macrocystic, endodermal sinus type, papillary, solid, glandular, myxomatous, sarcomatoid, polyvesicular, hepatoid and parietal types.
How to diagnose endodermal sinus tumor in infants?
Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants. Early detection and therapy is important because of its aggressive nature and good response to chemotherapy.
Can a sinus tumor in an infant metastasis?
Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants.