What is on the surface of dendritic cells?
Certain C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) on the surface of dendritic cells, some functioning as PRRs, help instruct dendritic cells as to when it is appropriate to induce immune tolerance rather than lymphocyte activation. Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen.
Do dendritic cells express costimulatory molecules?
Costimulatory Molecules and Immune Checkpoints Are Differentially Expressed on Different Subsets of Dendritic Cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in initiating and shaping immune responses.
How are dendritic cells activated?
DCs are activated directly by conserved pathogen molecules and indirectly by inflammatory mediators produced by other cell types that recognise such molecules. In addition, it is likely that DCs are activated by poorly characterised cellular stress molecules and by disturbances in the internal milieu.
Is a dendritic cell a leukocyte?
DCs are bone marrow (BM)-derived leukocytes and are the most potent type of antigen-presenting cells. They can also be propagated in vitro from BM and blood using various combinations of growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Flt3 ligand.
What is the role of the dendritic cell?
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous family of immune cells that link innate and adaptive immunity. The main function of these innate cells is to capture, process, and present antigens to adaptive immune cells and mediate their polarization into effector cells (1).
How are dendritic cells in communication with other cells?
The dendritic cells are constantly in communication with other cells in the body. This communication can take the form of direct cell–cell contact based on the interaction of cell-surface proteins. An example of this includes the interaction of the membrane proteins of the B7 family of the dendritic cell with CD28 present on the lymphocyte.
How are dendrites and veiled cells similar and different?
While similar in appearance, these are structures distinct from the dendrites of neurons. Immature dendritic cells are also called veiled cells, as they possess large cytoplasmic ‘veils’ rather than dendrites. Dendritic cells were first described by Paul Langerhans (hence Langerhans cells) in the late nineteenth century.
What happens when a dendritic cell is exposed to HIV?
Artistic rendering of the surface of a human dendritic cell illustrating sheet-like processes that fold back onto the membrane surface. When exposed to HIV, some defend that these sheets entrap viruses in the vicinity and focus them to contact zones with T cells targeted for infection.
How are monocyte-derived dendritic cells generated in vitro?
Monocyte-derived dendritic cells can be generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs). Plating of PBMCs in a tissue culture flask permits adherence of monocytes. Treatment of these monocytes with interleukin 4 (IL-4) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)…